At large airports, current controller tools provide surface displays and can alert controllers when aircraft taxi into areas where a runway incursion could result. Additional ground- based capabilities will be developed to improve runway safety that include expansion of runway surveillance technology (i.e., ASDe-X) to additional airports (likely not to additional airports – see LCGS discussion below), deployment of low-cost surveillance for medium-sized airports, improved runway markings, and initial controller taxi conformance monitoring capabilities. OI 103207 Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Controllers
Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System is a system at airports having a surveillance infrastructure consisting of a Non-Cooperative Surveillance (e.g. SMR, Microwave Sensors, Optical Sensors etc.) and Cooperative Surveillance (e.g. Multilateration systems)
Low Cost Ground Surveillance is being developed as an alternative to more sophisticated systems. Plans include Certification of alternative low-cost ground surveillance systems to enhance airport safety by providing air traffic controllers with information regarding aircraft and vehicle movement on the ground
Runway safety operations are improved by providing pilots with improved awareness of their location on the airport surface as well as runway incursion alerting capabilities. To help minimize pilot disorientation on the airport surface, a surface moving map display with own-ship position will be available. Both ground-based (e.g., runway status lights) and cockpit-based runway incursion alerting capabilities will also be available to alert pilots when it’s unsafe to enter the runway environment. OI 103208 Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Pilots
Data communication between aircraft and ANSP is used to exchange clearances, amendments, and requests. At specified airports, data communications is the principal means of communication between ANSP and equipped aircraft. “Terminal automation provides the ability to transmit automated terminal information, departure clearances and amendments, and taxi route instructions via data communications, including hold-short instructions. The taxi route instruction data communication function reduces requests for progressive taxi instructions. Benefits arising from this capability, in conjunction with other NAS investments, include enhanced airport throughput, controller efficiency, enhanced safety, as well as reduced fuel burn and emissions. OI 104207 Enhanced Surface Operations
- The boundaries of the runway protection area must be as close as possible to the runway to avoid unnecessary alerts, but must be carefully determined to allow time for immediate action / reaction in order to prevent any mobile from entering the runway after having been detected as a potential hazard.
- When operations are conducted on two parallel or converging runways, the only incursion hazard happens if one aircraft enters the protection area of the other runway while this one is engaged.
- Although the only incursion hazard happens if one aircraft enters the protection area of the other runway while this one is engaged, unlike the previous case both runways share a common part and the controller has to be alerted if there is a risk that any two mobiles, one being an aircraft, are to be in this common part at the same time.
- The conflicts / infringements considered at Level 2 are related to the most hazardous ground circulation incidents or accidents. They could be defined as follows:
- Conflicts / infringements on runway caused by aircraft or vehicles;
- Restricted area incursions caused by aircraft (i.e. incursions on a closed taxiway or runway).