AoC list

Areas of Change list

    Increasingly autonomous aviation systems

    Increasing network and device connectedness via the Internet of Things

    New manufacturing technologies: additive manufacturing (3D printing) of aircraft parts

    Wake Turbulence Separation Recategorization

    Decreased ability of pilots to prepare and execute flights deviating from standard operating procedures

    Increasing reliance on procedural solutions for operational safety

    Simplified certification standards for light general aviation aircraft

    Dramatic increases in the fleets of 737 and A320 derivatives

    Increasing implementation of Auto Ground Collision Avoidance Systems (Auto-GCAS on civilian airliners)

    Increasing disparity between future pilot supply and demand especially among the feeder supply of crew experienced in smaller commercial aircraft operations

    Introduction of stratospheric aerial platforms for Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) Air Traffic Management functions

    Downsized vertical fins due to introduction of active flow control rudders for increased yaw control

    Introduction of touch-screen displays and voice recognition to the commercial flight deck

    Widespread deployment of System Wide Information Management (SWIM) on-demand NAS information services

    Increased throughput utilizing improved vertical flight profiles and aids to low-visibility operations

    Increased traffic flows involving closely-spaced parallel, converging, and intersecting runway operations

    Improved surface operations technologies and procedures

    Initiation of collaborative air traffic management

    Proliferation of voluntarily-submitted safety information

    Decreased utilization of turboprop operations worldwide

    Increasing adoption of software defined radio systems in commercial aviation

    Single-pilot cockpits for large commercial transports

    Socio-economic and political crises affecting aviation

    Use of non-approved and/or poorly maintained maintenance tools

    Shift from clearance-based to trajectory-based air traffic control

    Significant imbalances in regional personnel supply and demand

    Operational tempo and economic considerations affecting air traffic controller alertness

    Increasing use of Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) for weather information and advisories/clearances

    Shift in the demographics of newly-hired air traffic controllers compared with retiree skills and interests

    Reluctance among operators to implement voluntary proactive safety mitigations

    Decreasing availability of qualified maintenance staff at stations other than home base of operation

    New pilot licensing standards

    Aging maintenance workforce

    Smaller organizations and owners operating aging aircraft

    Introduction of new training methodologies for maintenance staff

    Shortage of rare-earth elements

    Increasing demands for limited radio frequency bandwidth

    New aircraft recovery systems in general aviation and commercial aircraft

    World wide climate change trending towards warmer temperatures

    Worldwide implementation of SMS

    High-density passenger cabin configurations

    Novel technologies to move aircraft from gate-to-runway and runway-to-gate

    Increasing single-engine taxi operations or taxi on only inboard engines of 4-engine aircraft

    Operational tempo and economic considerations affecting fatigue among maintenance personnel

    Increasing use of virtual mockups for maintenance training and for evaluation of requirements

    Paradigm shift from paper based to electronic based maintenance records and databases

    Changes in the qualifications of maintenance personnel

    Entry into service of commercial, space-tourism passenger vehicles

    Increasing frequency of commercial and government space vehicle traffic

    Standards and certification requirements for sub-orbital vehicles

    Introduction of sub-orbital commercial vehicles

    Increasing functionality and use of personal electronic devices by passengers and flight crew

    Supplementary passenger protection and restraint systems

    Operational tempo and economic considerations affecting flight crew alertness

    Shortened and compressed type rating training for self-sponsored pilot candidates

    Increased dependence on synthetic training in lieu of full-realism simulators

    Introduction of new training methodologies for operation of advanced aircraft

    Shift in responsibility for separation assurance from ATC to flight crew

    Introduction of Non-Deterministic Approaches (NDA) and artificial intelligence (self learning) in aviation systems

    Increasing amount of information available to flight crew

    New surface traffic flow management technologies

    Increasing manufacturer sales price incentives due to expanding competitive environment

    Increasing numbers of migratory birds near airports

    Increasing frequency of hostile acts against the aviation system

    Changing management and labor relationships in aviation

    Language barriers in aviation

    Changes in aviation fuel composition

    Increasingly stringent noise and emissions constraints on aviation operations

    Increased need to monitor incident and accident precursor trends

    Increasing use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products in aviation

    Assessment of user fees within the aviation system to recover costs of operation

    Growth in aviation system throughput

    Operation of low-cost airlines

    Accelerated transition of pilots from simple to complex aircraft

    Increasing numbers of Light Sport Aircraft

    Emerging alternate operational models in addition to hub-and-spoke concepts AoC number

    Very long-range operations, polar operations, and ETOPS flights.

    Increasing operations of cargo aircraft

    Increased operations of lighter-than-air vehicles including dirigibles and airships AoC number

    Increasing utilization of RNAV/RNP departures and approaches by smaller aircraft

    Redesigned or dynamically reconfigured airspace

    Increasing operations of military and civilian unmanned aerial systems in shared military, civilian, and special use airspace

    Increasing dependence on in-flight electronic databases

    Introduction of artificial intelligence in ATM systems

    Increasing interactions between highly-automated ground-based and aircraft-based systems

    Changing approaches to ATM warning and alert systems

    Increasing reliance on satellite-based systems for Communications, Navigations, and Surveillance (CNS) Air Traffic Management functions

    Increasing heterogeneity of hardware and software within the ANS system

    Changing design, operational, and maintenance expertise involving air navigation system (ANS) equipment

    Evolution in the type and quantity of information used by ATM personnel

    Technologies and procedures enabling reduced separation

    Reduction in numbers of aviation personnel familiar with previous generation technology and practices

    Increasing size of maintenance, ATM, and operations databases

    Increasing complexities within future air transportation systems

    Evolution in lines of authority, command and responsibilities within the air transport system

    Global organizational models

    Economic incentives to form partnerships and outsource organizational activities

    Societal pressure to find individuals and organizations criminally liable for errors in design and operations

    Remote Virtual Tower (RVT) operational concepts

    Shift toward performance-based solutions and regulations

    Trend toward privatization of government ATC systems and airports

    Delegation of responsibility from the regulating authority to the manufacturing, operating or maintaining organization

    Changing human factors assumptions for implementing technology

    Highly-integrated, interdependent aircraft systems

    Ongoing electronic component miniaturization

    Increasing use of composite structural materials

    Increasing implementation of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) for efficient and safe operations

    Entry into service of Very Light Jets

    New glass-cockpit designs in general aviation aircraft

    Next-generation in-flight entertainment and business systems

    New cockpit warning and alert systems

    Advanced supplementary weather information systems

    Emergence of high-energy propulsion, power, and control systems

    New cockpit and cabin surveillance and recording systems

    Advanced vehicle health management systems

    Reliance on automation supporting a complex air transportation system

    Air traffic composed of a mix of aircraft and capabilities

    Accelerating scientific and technological advances enabling improved performance, decreased fuel burn, and reduced noise

    New hypersonic aircraft

    New supersonic transport aircraft

    Introduction of new runway-independent aircraft concepts

    Changes in design roles and responsibilities among manufacturing organizations